The USB-A is the original, larger USB connection. It can only be inserted one side up because the bottom side of its horizontal port is dedicated to pin connectors.
The Micro-USB is a miniaturised version of the USB-A connection. It can only be inserted one side up and is one of the most common USB connections.
The USB-C connection port is much smaller than the USB-A port and can be inserted no matter which way it is flipped as the connector pins are on either side. It’s 100-watt power connection can charge large devices, such as a laptop.
The Lightning connector is a small, flippable port used to connect to Apple’s mobile devices and some accessories. It charges and connects the devices to computers and charging bricks.